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Post second wave of COVID-19, there is a significant improvement in situation in India leading to rise in expectations of large businesses to gradually return to normalcy which means opening of workplaces. While there are mixed statements in the media regarding a third wave, and large population in India is still unvaccinated (including those who are not keen to get vaccinated), several forums are discussing the need of vaccination of workforce that may possibly return to workplaces. As per the publicly available information, even though Government of India has been able to administer COVID-19 vaccine to about 500 million people until August 06,2021, still a large percentage of population is yet to be vaccinated.

Recently, the “Liberalised Pricing and Accelerated National COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy” was released by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (“MOHFW”), Government of India wherein it was provided that every citizen above the age of 18 years shall be vaccinated from May 1, 2021. In addition, the Government of India had issued a “Guidance on COVID-19 Vaccination at Work-Places (Government and Private)” wherein workplaces having about 100 eligible and willing beneficiaries (employees) were permitted to organise COVID-19 vaccination sessions at workplaces (to facilitate optimal utilization of vaccine dosage and reduce wastage). Subsequently in May 21, 2021, family members and dependents of the employees, above 18 years of age were also allowed to be vaccinated at workplace.

Subsequent to the said announcements, several employers across India started advising their employees to get vaccinated, even if return to workplace was delayed or staggered. Various companies also arranged vaccination camps at their offices to get the employees vaccinated. Companies like Reliance Industries claimed to have vaccinated about 98% of their employees with at least one dose of vaccine. Some companies paid incentives to employees to get vaccinated. However, since a certain segment of population in India is still hesitant in getting vaccinated, there have been instances of employees refusing to be vaccinated, apparently on several grounds including violation of right of privacy, right to choose medication of choice or right of religious freedom and religious beliefs etc.

Given the desire of the Government of India, to have the people residing in India to get vaccinated and employers planning to open workplaces, a question more than frequently asked is whether employees can be asked to get vaccinated.

It is relevant to state that the MOHFW in December 20201, in respect to several enquiries received, issued Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on vaccination by individuals, and clarified that the vaccination (for COVID-19) in voluntary. MOHFW also stated that it is advisable to receive the complete schedule of COVID-19 vaccine for protecting oneself against the disease and also to limit the spread of this disease to close contacts including family members, friends, relatives and co-workers.

While MOHFW issued the FAQs, several municipal corporation authorities such as in Firozabad, Ujjain and Pimpri-Chichwad in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra respectively, after having weighed in the primacy of right of public’s health at large over individual’s right or choice of administering vaccines, have incentivised vaccination by issuing orders directing non-credit of salaries to the employees who have failed to take their COVID-19 vaccine shots. Similar directions for withholding salaries of non-vaccinated employees were taken by the State governments of Assam, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Chhattisgarh. An order dated January 16, 2021 was issued by the Civil Surgeon (equivalent to CMO/CMHO) in Koderma, Jharkand, mandating local government health workers to take Covid-19 Vaccine or otherwise their salary will be withheld.

The Government of Maharashtra Department of Revenue and Forest Disaster Management, Relief and Rehabilitation, issued an order on the March 13, 2021 wherein it was ordered that: “Essential shops owners and person working at all shops to get vaccinated at the earliest as per criteria of Government Of India”.

In the letter dated April 23,2021 issued by the Office of the District Education Officer, TarnTarn, Punjab it was stated, “This has reference to the meeting held by the Deputy Commissioner on 22-04-2021, regarding COVID Vaccination and the instructions were issued and received by this office on the mandatory COVID Vaccination of all the officers/employees. It is clearly stated that if any officer/employee is unwilling or refuses to be vaccinated, the concerned DEOs shall not draw the salary of such officers/employees.”

Some such orders were challenged before various High Courts in different States.
We are discussing certain matters hereinbelow:

Meghalaya High Court

The Meghalaya High Court vide order dated June 23,20212 has dealt with the issue of vaccination when the State of Meghalaya, through various orders of the Deputy Commissioners, made it mandatory for shopkeepers, vendors, local taxi drivers and others to get themselves vaccinated before they can resume their businesses. The issue that arose consideration before the High Court was whether vaccination can at all be made mandatory and whether such mandatory action can adversely affect the right of a citizen to earn his/her livelihood. The Court while referring to the FAQs issued by MOHFW held that there has been no legal mandate whatsoever with regard to coercive or mandatory vaccination in general and the COVID-19 vaccination drive in particular that can prohibit or take away the livelihood of a citizen on that ground.

Gauhati High Court(for State of Mizoram)
Similar judgment was passed by Gauhati High Court on July 02,20213,in a matter challenging the validly of clauses (in orders issued by the State of Mizoram) requiring all persons in the State of Mizoram to be vaccinated or else not being allowed to leave their houses to procure/obtain essential items/goods or earn their livelihood by working in shops/stores, driving public/commercial transport vehicles, etc. The Court while relying upon the judgment of Meghalaya High Court (June 23, 2021) held that the question for consideration is whether a person can be vaccinated against his will and whether the non-vaccination of the said individual can debar him from earning his livelihood, keeping in mind the fundamental right of a person to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation or trade or business under Article 19(1)(g) and his right to livelihood in terms of Article 21 of the Constitution. It was held that though the State can make a law imposing reasonable restrictions in the exercise of any of the rights conferred under Article 19, so long as the said restriction is a reasonable restriction, no such law has been made by the Government. The Court further observed that even a vaccinated infected covid person can be a super spreader and thus if vaccinated and un-vaccinated persons can be infected by the covid virus and both be spreaders of the virus, the restriction placed only upon the un-vaccinated persons, debarring them from earning their livelihood or leaving their houses to obtain essential items is unjustified, grossly unreasonable and arbitrary.

Gauhati High Court (for State of Arunachal Pradesh)

In another judgment4passed on July 19,2021, the Gauhati High Court heard a matter challenging anorder of the State Executive Committee of Arunachal Pradesh for developmental works in both public and private sector. In this case temporary permits were directed to be issued provided such persons are vaccinated for COVID-19. The High Court relied upon, the RTI Information furnished by the MOHFW thatCOVID-19 vaccination is not a mandatory but voluntary and, also an answer given on March 19, 2021 in the Lok Sabha to an Unstarred Question (No. 3976) by the Minister of State of MOHFW that there is no provision of compensation for recipients of COVID-19 Vaccination against any kind of side effects or medical complication that may arise due to inoculation and vaccination being entirely voluntary for the beneficiaries. The Court observed that there is no evidence available either in the record or in the public domain that COVID-19 vaccinated persons cannot be infected with COVID-19 virus, or cannot be a carrier of the virus and consequently, a spreader of disease. The High Court thus stayed the order observing that the classification sought to be made between vaccinated and unvaccinated persons for developmental works in both public and private sector thereof, prima facie, neither being founded on intelligible differentia nor being found to have a rational relation/nexus to the object sought to be achieved by such classification (containment and further spread of COVID-19 pandemic).

Madras High Court

In an order passed on June 30, 2021 by the Madras High Court5, decided on June 30, 2021, the Division Bench of Madras High Court, while examining the question whether a right to refuse vaccination on being exercised can be held to be in negative, observed that vaccinating oneself may not only be to protect oneself but also in the larger interest of public health. The Court observed that since there is also an element of reluctance in some quarters to take the vaccine, the State should try and persuade persons with awareness campaigns and scientific data to indicate the efficacy of the vaccines and the indispensable nature thereof in dealing with the present pandemic. Indeed, vaccinating oneself may not only be to protect oneself but also in the larger interest of public health. When such larger interest of public health comes into play and it is possible that a person who has not taken the vaccine may not reveal any symptoms but still be a silent carrier, it is doubtful whether the right to refuse to take the vaccine can be exercised in such circumstances.

Kerala High Court

A writ petition6 was recently filed before Kerala High Court challenging the recent Government Order dated August 04, 2021 issued by the State of Kerala under the Disaster Management Act, 2005 which imposed restrictions on unvaccinated persons by providing that people need to be vaccinated against COVID or have a negative RT-PCR certificate to visit shops, banks, public offices, etc. Further, the said order reads as under: “Only a person who has taken at least one dose of Covid-19 vaccine before two weeks, or who are in possession of RT-PCR negative certificate taken 72 hours before or who is in possession of Covid-19 positive result more than a month old will be allowed inside (workers/visitors) in shops, markets, banks, public and private offices, financial institutions, factories, industrial establishment, open tourist spaces, and other establishments.”
The petition was heard by the Kerala High Court on August 9, 2021 and the State Government’s response has been sought.

Supreme Court of India

A writ petition7 was recently filed before the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India primarily for seeking directions to release the entire segregated trial data for each of the phases of trials undertaken with respect to the vaccines being administered in India. In the said petition, apart from other reliefs, on the grounds of right to privacy, autonomy of individual, right of informed consent alongwith right of self-determination, prayer was inter-alia made to declare that vaccine mandates, in any manner whatsoever, even by way of making it a precondition for accessing any benefits or services, is a violation of rights of citizens and unconstitutional.
As a latest development, the Hon’ble Supreme Court on August 9, 2021 while hearing the said petition refused to allow the said prayer observing that the steps of administrating vaccination were being taken by countries across the world to push vaccination and no measure should be taken that will fuel vaccine hesitancy.

Glimpses of International Developments

In some jurisdictions overseas, being vaccinated is becoming a mandatory condition for entry to a workplace. Mandatory vaccination is already prevalent for employees in some high-risk industries, such as aviation, healthcare and hospitality, etc., and for the workforce employed in these industries, vaccination has been mandated by public health orders.
Certain countries including Canada, Australia, several Caribbean countries, as well as some countries in Europe, seem to have laid down polices whereby vaccinations are mandatory under law for person in certain sectors.8

Anhad Law’s Perspective

The issue of mandatory vaccination for the employees is significant and it seems to be common across countries where law does not provide for mandatory vaccination. Owing to little jurisprudence and case laws on this subject in India, this issue is significant for the employers who need to re-assess the health and safety practices to ensure a safe workplace for workforce, customers and visitors.
It may be noteworthy to mention that Central or State Governments in India exercising the legal rights could have the legislative mandate to direct mandatory vaccination at workplace especially of their employees. The Parliament and State legislatures have been conferred legislative mandate to enact a specific legislation incorporating such an obligation. An apt example for this would be the Compulsory Vaccination Act, 1892 enacted by the British government to deal with the smallpox epidemic. Presently, the Indian Government could also pass an order under the existing laws such as the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 to empower State governments to take appropriate measures necessary to prevent the outbreak or spread of an epidemic disease. Additionally, the National Disaster Management Act, 2005 confers wide powers to the National Authority and the National Executive Committee that could pass appropriate orders to mandate compulsory vaccination at each State / Union Territory level.

It is possible that in case of any further adversity faced by the Central / State governments, these governments may individually or collectively decide to pass appropriate orders / legislations making COVID-19 vaccination mandatory for all eligible for the same. However, in the event the same is done by the Government, the employers in India need to be mindful of the legal provisions associated with the fact that records of vaccination status of employee amounts to health information/ medical records and are covered under ‘sensitive personal data of information’ (“SPDI”) as defined under Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules,2011, and thus the employer will be required to ensure compliance with the applicable requirements laid down under law. It is also possible that in case post-vaccination, an employee faces material health issues, then in addition to the relevant government authorities, the employer may also be subjected to legal consequences.

Notwithstanding the above, one cannot ignore the fact that in case of an establishment, it is the employer who has the legal obligation to take reasonable care and appropriate steps to ensure safety of his employees and provide a safe workplace.

The Factories Act, 1948, that has been in existence for more than seven decades provides for the safety aspects to be covered by an employer including measures to be taken to promote health and welfare of its workers employed in factories. As per Section 6 of the Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020 (to be notified shortly) which deals with duties of an employer, every employer is mandatorily required to ensure that workplace is free from hazards which cause or are likely to cause injury or occupational disease to the employees. An employer is further required to provide and maintain, as far as is reasonably practicable, a working environment that is safe and without risk to the health of his employees, provide annual health examination or test free of costs to such employees of such age or such class of employees of establishments or such class of establishments, as may be prescribed by the appropriate Government. Similarly, State specific Shops and Establishments have certain obligations with regard to a clean and safe workplace to be provided by an employer.

While it is yet to be seen whether a formal decision is taken by the Central government / State governments making vaccination mandatory, an employer is obligated to find legally correct ways to ensure that it complies with its obligations under applicable laws to provide a safe workplace to its employees besides ensuring health and safety of his employees. While it may vary from sector to sector, depending upon a sector (s), employers may want to engage in discussions with their employees, spread awareness amongst them to ensure that workforce and/or their families are vaccinated. It may also be prudent that industries / trade bodies also help in building consensus amongst employers in setting standards of compliance across several sectors in this aspect.

It may also be advisable for the employers to make health and safety as a priority and make forward looking policies attributing importance to health or safety of employees not merely as an obligation of employer but also an equal responsibility of employees.

Manishi Pathak, Founding Partner and Ranjan Jha, Partner

Disclaimer: The contents of the above publication are based on understanding of applicable laws and updates in law, within the knowledge of authors. Readers should take steps to ascertain the current developments given the everyday changes that may be occurring in India on internationally on the subject covered hereinabove. These are personal views of authors and do not constitute a legal opinion, analysis or interpretation. This is an initiative to share developments in the world of law or as may be relevant for a reader. No reader should act on the basis of any statement made above without seeking professional and up-to-date legal advice.

2‘Registrar General, Vs. State of Meghalaya High Court of Meghalaya’ PIL No.6/2021
3Dinthar Incident Aizawl Vs. State of Mizoram and 11 Ors Aizawl” WP(C)/37/2020
4Madan Mili v. Union of India” PIL 13/2021
5M. Karpagam vs. Commissionerate for the Welfare of Differently Abled”, WP No. 11850 of 2021
6Pauly Vadakkan vs. State of Kerala, WP(C) 9035852/2021
7Dr. Jacob Puliyel vs. Union of India & Ors.’, W.P.(C) No. 607/2021
8As per media reports available on Reuters (, the following is the list of some of the countries with compulsory vaccination policy for certain groups:
Australia decided in late June, 2021 to make vaccinations mandatory for high-risk aged-care workers and employees in quarantine hotels.
United States
New York has mandated its state employees to either get vaccinated or get tested on a weekly basis from September 6, 2021. California Governor Gavin Newsom said that all state employees would be ordered to get vaccinated starting Aug. 2 or undergo testing at least once a week. Several other US states have issued similar guidelines for government employees, health workers, and other groups. High-profile employers such as Delta Airlines, fitness company Equinox, Facebook, Microsoft, Google, Lyft and Netflix seem to have introduced polices for vaccination as mandatory condition of entry to workplaces, including offices.
It is mandatory for care home workers in England to have vaccinations from October,2021. English nightclubs and other venues with large crowds will require patrons to present proof of full vaccination from the end of September.
The French parliament on August 2,2021 approved a bill which will make vaccinations mandatory for health workers as well as require a bolstered health pass in many social venues.
Saudi Arabia
It has since March 21, 2021 has operated a broad “no jab, no job” policy in both public and private sectors. In May, Saudi Arabia mandated that all public and private sector workers wishing to attend a workplace get vaccinated, without specifying when this would be implemented.
Italy has since March 2021mandated all health workers, including pharmacists, to get vaccinated and those refusing vaccines could be suspended without pay for the rest of the year.
Indonesia made inoculations mandatory in February 2021, threatening fines of up to 5 million rupiah ($357).
In July, 2021 Turkmenistan becomes first country in the world to make vaccination mandatory for all adults.
Fiji’s government ordered on July 09,2021 that it will enforce vaccination of all the employees.

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Manishi Pathak



Anti-Bribery & Anti-Corruption | Dispute Resolution | Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) | Employment & Labour | Corporate, Commercial and Regulatory | Government Relations | Mergers & Acquisitions

Manishi Pathak is the Founder and Managing Partner of ANHAD LAW.

Manishi has experience of over three decades. His areas of practice include dispute resolutions, labour and employment, corporate investigations, compliance audit and investigation into non-compliance of anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, besides advisory and transactional supports on matters involving other corporate and commercial laws.

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Manishi is also known for his expertise in the area of mergers and acquisitions/ joint ventures, corporate restructuring and re-organizations besides his government relations work. 

He has been appreciated by clients for his hands-on approach and for providing solution-oriented sound legal advice which is commercially and practically tenable. He is also known for offering unique blend of analytical thinking and business strategy, while structuring, negotiating and closing complex commercial transactions and resolution of disputes including mediation and arbitration.

Manishi also has vast experience of delivering advisory support in areas of law, including but not limited to contentious commercial disputes, regulatory compliances (involving exchange control regulations in addition to other regulatory matters), compliance advisory under various corporate and commercial laws, rules etc. (under applicable Central and/or State). 

Manishi’s primary area of interest and specialization besides dispute resolution and government relations is Labour and Employment laws. He enjoys a distinguished status and standing in the sphere of Labour and Employment law practice. He is widely recognized as a ‘top ranked specialist’ in this area of practice owing to his deep knowledge and vast experience of dealing with range of matters in the domain of labour and employment laws practice including court litigation and appellate work. 

Manishi has retained most top accolades on offer by leading global legal ranking bodies such as Chambers & Partners, Legal 500 etc., in the field of Labour and Employment laws in India. For over last decade, Manishi and he been retained title of ‘Top Ranked’ ‘Leading Practitioner’, ‘Specialist’, owing to established expertise and in-depth knowledge he possesses in the sphere of Labour and Employment laws practice in India. 

Manishi is considered to be one of the first legal professionals who identified the scope, ambit and applicability of various central and state specific labour and employment legislations in India, while making foreign and Indian multinational corporations having business presence in India recognize the importance of compliance to various labour and employment laws related legislations in India. 

Undisputedly, in the context of Indian scenario, Manishi is regarded as the legal professional who played a pivotal role that lead to recognition and acceptance of ‘labour and employment’ laws as a prominent and established area of practice, amongst other practice areas. 

As the practice head, Manishi is actively involved in advising on a wide range of labour laws related queries, preparation and standardization of employment agreements and other agreements such as non-compete and non-solicitation agreement, non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements, HR policies/handbooks/manuals etc., including structuring of ESOPs, closure of businesses, termination/transfer of employees, other termination related issues, trade union related disputes, social security and/or insurance claims, etc. The Firm predominantly represents companies/corporations and their management on employment related projects and litigation.

Manishi also leads members of the firm on matters involving employment audits, whistle-blower investigations, closure of establishments, transfer of business and undertakings, sexual harassment complaints, employer and employee rights and matters involving trade unions. He is also known for his involvement in investigations and/or enquiries concerning employees including in matters of misconduct by employees and/or associated parties. 

Prior to founding Anhad Law, Manishi has been the Partner of other renowned law firms of India.

Manishi has considerable experience of representing clients belonging to manufacturing as well as services business, across varied sectors including but not limited to automobiles, aviation, banking, chemicals, commerce, electronics, FMCG, information technology, paper, packaging, pharmaceuticals, ports, real estate, retail and telecommunications, amongst others.

Chambers and Partners lists Manishi in Band 1 for Employment Law and he has been recognised as a leading employment law specialist in India since 2013. They have provided the following comments as well: Manishi Pathak commands ‘great respect in the employment market,’ clients valuing him especially as a ‘very experienced partner who brings a lot of insight to particularly complex employment issues.’ He offers significant expertise in the handling of the employment aspects of M&A transactions and in advising international clients on ensuring that their operations comply with Indian employment laws.  Chambers and Partners ranked Manishi as a New Delhi based recognized practitioner in the area of Corporate/M&A for the years 2014 and 2015. He has been ‘Top Ranked’ for 2022 by Chambers and Partners (Asia-Pacific).   Chambers Global ranked him as a New Delhi based recognized practitioner in the area of Corporate/M&A for the year 2014 and 2015.  Asia Law Profiles 2022 has ranked him as an “Elite Practitioner’ for Labour & Employment Law in India. He was also earlier listed by Asia Law Profiles in 2017, 2019 and 2020.  He has been listed in the Who’s Who Legal of Indian practitioners in the field of Labour & Employment law since 2009.  Legal 500 has further recognised him amongst India’s leading lawyers for the last several years including 2021. 

He has authored several publications on Indian Labour & Employment law for Kluwer Law and Law Business Research and he writes and speaks regularly on a range of subjects, including foreign investment in India and Labour and Employment law. 

Some of his prominent publications include “Restrictive Covenants” (India Chapter) by Kluwer Law Publication; “Hiring and retaining Talent” (India Chapter) by Kluwer Law Publication; “Getting The Deal Through (Labour & Employment)”, India Chapter by Law Business Research; Labour and Employment Compliance in India, 9 editions, published by Kluwer Law since 2008 including of 2021. 

He has also authored “India Chapter on Employment Law in the Employment Law Review” by Law Business Research since 2010 -15. Manishi also contributed to National Law School Publication (Business Law Review) “An overview of contract labour related laws in India”. He has also contributed to the World Bank Group‘s publication Employing Workers 2021. 

Manishi is a member and was an officer of the Employment and Industrial Relations Law Committee of the International Bar Association (IBA). He is also a member of the Delhi High Court Bar Association and Inter Pacific Bar Association (IPBA).

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Terms Of Use

These Terms of Use (the “Terms of Use”) describes the terms and conditions applicable to your access and use of the Website (as defined below). By accessing this website (, including the whole or any part of the web pages located at the website, layout of this website; individual elements of this website’s design; underlying code elements of the website; or text, sounds, graphics, animated elements or any other content of this website and associated mobile applications (collectively, “Website”), you are deemed to accept the following Terms of Use and acknowledge and confirm that you are seeking information relating to Anhad Law of your own accord and that there has been no form of solicitation, advertisement or inducement by Anhad Law or its members.

You accept Terms of Use by using the Website or accessing any content available through the Website, including without limitation our RSS feeds (collectively, the “Content”).

Anhad Law may revise these Terms of Use at any time by posting revised Terms of Use on the Website, and you agree that your use of the Website after such changes will constitute your acceptance of such changes. Any revision/ amendment will be effective immediately. You are encouraged to periodically visit this page to review the Terms of Use and any changes thereto. Discontinuing use of the Website will not affect the applicability of the Terms of Use to your prior uses of the Website.

Anhad Law website is provided as a complimentary facility to clients, colleagues, and others, for general information only. The content or information on any Website is not designed or intended to provide legal or other advice or create a lawyer-client relationship and is not intended to solicit clients or work. By accessing the website, you wish to gain more information about Anhad Law, its practice areas and its attorneys, for your own information and use; and the information is made available/provided to you only on your specific request. Any transmission, receipt or use of this Website and information and materials contained therein or sending an e-mail to our offices, will not create or constitute an attorney-client relationship. Any information obtained or material downloaded from this website or and materials contained therein is completely at your volition, None of the information contained on the Website is in the nature of a legal opinion or otherwise amounts to any legal advice and you should not take any action based on the Content of this Website without seeking independent legal advice.

Anhad Law and its partners, retainers, consultants, directors, agents, associates or employees (including authors or contributors of any content or information on the Website) accept no responsibility for any loss or damage that may result from accessing, or reliance on, any content on the Website and disclaim, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all liability with respect to or resulting from, or arising out of or connected with acts or omissions made by clients or readers or users on the basis of content or information on the Website.

Rankings and other materials from legal directories and other sources may refer to current Legal Practice verticals or their predecessors. Images of people may be their current or former images or may feature current or former personnel or models not connected with Anhad Law.

  1. Anhad Law may add, alter, modify, change or vary all or any of these Terms and the Content and/or the services described on the Website at any time without any prior notice.
  2. The Website and the Content are the sole and exclusive property of Anhad Law and/or its licensors. You are provided with access to it only for your personal and non-commercial use. You may not, in any form or by any means: (i) adapt, reproduce, store, duplicate, copy, sell, resell, distribute, transmit, print, display, perform, publish or create derivative works from any part of this website; or (ii) commercialise any information, products or services obtained from any part of this website, without our written permission. You hereby acknowledge and agree that, as between Anhad Law and you, all right, title, and interest in and to the Website and the Content shall be owned exclusively by Anhad Law. Use of the Website or the Content in any way not expressly permitted by these Terms of Use is prohibited.
  3. So long as you agree and comply with the terms of these Terms of Use, and unless these Terms of Use is terminated by Anhad Law, Anhad Law invites a person to view and/or print a single copy of the Content or any part thereof. You agree that you will not remove or modify any acknowledgements, credits, disclaimers or legal notices contained on the Website or in the Content. Special terms may apply to some services offered on the Website and may be posted in connection with the applicable service, feature or activity. Any such terms are in addition to these Terms of Use and, in the event of a conflict, any such terms shall prevail.
  4. You agree not to access the Website by any means other than through a standard web browser on a computer or mobile device. You further agree that you will not damage, disable, alter, overburden, or impair the Website or interfere with any other party’s use and enjoyment of it.
  5. In the event you are accessing the Website on a shared computer/ mobile device, we would strongly recommend that you clear your recent browsing history, cookies and cache from your internet browser and re-access the Website so that you may review our disclaimer and accept the Terms of Use. Anhad Law disclaims all liability in the event of non-compliance on part of the user in this regard.
  6. The Content available on the Website is intended to be a general information resource and is provided solely on an “AS IS” and “AS AVAILABLE” basis. Information provided on the Website is believed to be reliable when posted, but there is no guarantee that it is accurate or complete or current at all times. The Website is a resource for informational purposes only and is intended, but not promised or guaranteed, to be correct, complete, and up-to-date. Anhad Law does not warrant that the information contained on this Website is accurate or complete, and hereby disclaims any and all liability to the User or any other person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions, regardless of whether such errors or omissions result from negligence, accident or any other cause. Further, Anhad Law assumes no liability for the interpretation and/or use of the information contained on this Website, nor does it offer a warranty of any kind, either expressly or impliedly. You are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein. You should not construe Anhad Law publication of the Content as a warranty or guarantee of the quality or availability of any services or the accuracy, completeness or reliability of the Content or any part thereof.
  7. The Website may contain links to websites operated by other parties. Anhad Law provides these links to other websites as a convenience, and use or access of these sites is at solely your own risk. The linked sites are not under the control of Anhad Law, and Anhad Law is not responsible for the content available on such sites. Such links do not imply Anhad Law’s endorsement of information or material on any other site and Anhad Law disclaims all liability with regard to your access to and use of such linked Websites and the consequences of such access or use. Anhad Law does not intend that the links from this Website to other internet websites, be considered referrals to, endorsements of, or affiliations with the linked entities. Anhad Law is not responsible for, and makes no representations or warranties (i) the contents of the websites to which links may be provided from this Website, or (ii) other such websites or links may be active or always available. You must review and agree to the terms and conditions of these sites before using these sites.
  8. Maps are published by Google and sourced under an open license. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used do not necessarily imply the expression of opinion on the part of Anhad Law or its personnel in respect of the legal status of any geographic region, frontier, or boundaries.
  9. You must not link to Anhad Law’s Website without a written agreement between you and Anhad Law authorizing you to do so.
  10. Unauthorized use of any Anhad Law trademark, service mark or logo are prohibited, and may be a violation of applicable trademark laws.
  11. The website and all content on the website are provided to you on an “AS IS” and “AS AVAILABLE” basis without making warranty of any kind either express or implied, representations, endorsements or conditions with respect to the Website or the information, including but not limited to any implied warranties as to usefulness, completeness, accuracy, correctness, reliability fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. Anhad Law makes no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or reliability of any Content available through the website. You are responsible for verifying any Content or information before relying on it. Use of the Website and the Content available on the Website is at your sole risk.
  12. Anhad Law makes no representations or warranties that the Website will be available or will meet the user(s) requirements, that access/use of the website will be uninterrupted, that there will be no delays, failures, errors or omissions or loss of transmitted information, that no viruses or other contaminating or destructive properties will be transmitted or that no damage will occur to user’s computer system. You have the sole responsibility for adequate protection and backup of data and/or equipment and to take reasonable and appropriate precautions to scan for computer viruses or other destructive properties.
  13. The User understands that the Website is used by him/her solely at his/her own risk, cost and liability. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Anhad Law disclaims all liability, whether based in contract, tort (including negligence), strict liability or otherwise, and further disclaims the user or anyone else for any loss, damages or other amounts whatsoever (including but not limited to direct, indirect, incidental, special, consequential, exemplary or punitive damages) arising out of or in connection with user’s use of or inability to use the Website or the information contained therein/Content , or any action or decision made by user in reliance on the Website or the information contained therein, or any unauthorized use or reproduction of the Website or the information therein, even if Anhad Law has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
  14. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold Anhad Law, its subsidiaries, and affiliates, and their respective officers, agents, members, partners, associates, directors, consultants and employees, harmless from any loss, liability, claim, or demand, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, due to or arising out of your use of the Website and/or breach of these Terms of Use.
  15. Copyright © 2021 Anhad Law, All rights reserved – The Website is protected by applicable copyright laws. Except for your use as authorized above, you may not modify, reproduce or distribute the content, design or layout of the Website, or individual sections of the content, design or layout of the Website, without Anhad Law’s express prior written permission.
  16. If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, or your intellectual property rights have been otherwise violated, please provide the following information to us via our contact form:
  17. (i) An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright or other intellectual property interest that is claimed to be infringed; (ii) A description of the copyrighted work or other intellectual property that you claim has been infringed; (iii) A description of where the material that you claim is infringing is located on the Site (providing URL(s) in the body of the communication is the best way to help Anhad Law locate content quickly); (iv) Your name, address, telephone number and e-mail address; A signed statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; and (v) A statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the information provided in your Notice is accurate and that you are the copyright or intellectual property owner or licensee or authorized to act on the copyright or intellectual property owner’s or licensee’s behalf. You can write to us at:Email ID:
  18. Anhad Law may, in its sole discretion, disable and/or terminate use of or access to the Website by users who infringe the intellectual property of others or of Anhad Law. The user agrees that Anhad Law with or without any reason, may immediately terminate his/her access to the Website without prior notice. Without limiting the foregoing, Anhad Law may terminate or temporarily suspend his/her access to the Website if he/she (a) breaches or violates these Terms, (b) there is a request by law enforcement or other government agencies, or (c) in case of unexpected technical issues or problems.
  19. Users agree that all terminations of access to the Website shall be made at the sole discretion of Anhad Law, and that Anhad Law shall not be liable in any manner whatsoever to either him/ her or any third-party for any termination of access to this Website.
  20. By agreeing to these terms, you acknowledge that Anhad Law may collect, use and disclose your information as described in our Privacy Policy, also available on the Website.
  21. If any provision of these Terms of Use is held to be illegal, invalid or unenforceable, such provision shall be disregarded and the remaining provisions shall remain in full force.
  22. Anhad Law’s failure to act or delay in acting with respect to any failure by you or others to comply with these Terms of Use does not waive or limit its right to act with respect to that, subsequent or similar failures.
  23. Terms of Use set forth the entire understanding and agreement between you and Anhad Law with respect to the subject matter hereof.
  24. Any cause of action or claim you may have with respect to these Terms of Use or the Website must be commenced within six (6) months after the claim or cause of action arises or such claim or cause of action shall be barred.
  25. You may not assign or transfer your rights or obligations under these Terms of Use without the prior written consent of Anhad Law, and any purported assignment or transfer in violation of this provision shall be null and void.
  26. Anhad Law causes the control and maintenance of this Website from India. Anhad Law makes no representations that the information and material contained in this Website are appropriate or permitted for use in jurisdictions outside India.
  27. These Terms of Use are governed by the laws of India without giving effect to any principles of conflicts of laws.
  28. The usage of the Website by the user is subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located in Delhi without prejudice to the right of Anhad Law to take action in any jurisdiction whatsoever.
  29. Anhad Law reserves the right to investigate complaints or reported violations of these Terms and to take any action we deem necessary and appropriate. Such action may include but not be limited to reporting any suspected unlawful activity to law enforcement officials, regulators, or other third parties. In addition, Anhad Law may take action to disclose any information necessary or appropriate to such persons or entities relating to user’s profiles, e-mail addresses, usage history, IP addresses and traffic information.
  30. Anhad Law reserves the right to seek all remedies available at law and in equity for violations of these Terms of Use and/or the rules and regulations set forth on the Website, including without limitation the right to block access from a particular internet address.
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